Hybrid Sten

 

During our first research trip last spring I had the opportunity to examine an unusual ‘hybrid’ Sten submachine gun. The weapon combined a MkII Sten’s receiver with a MkIII’s magazine housing. Added to this was a proprietary folding stock and a new fire control group and pistol grip.

Very little is known about the hybrid Sten with Peter Laidler’s book The Sten Machine Carbine mentioning it and the later Osprey book by Leroy Thompson sharing a photograph and brief caption which calls it an “experimental version of the Mk III.” It is also unclear exactly when it was built.

Below are some photographs I took of the Sten, lets look at some of the interesting features of the Hybrid Sten.

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left side of the Sten with the stock folded flush under the receiver (Matthew Moss)

No production Variant of the Sten was fitted with an under-folding stock, the Australian Austen, however, directly copied the MP38/40. The entire weapon is covered by a layer of textured, crackle paint finish, this was commonly used on commercial Sterling Mk4 submachine guns. The weapon has a short, 3.5 inch, perforated fore-end welded onto the front of the tube receiver that appears to be from a Lanchester.

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Rear right of the weapon close up of its pistol grip, stock and trigger housing (Matthew Moss)

The under folding stock is rudimentary but effective, the butt plate swivels free but the lock up is quite secure. It uses the receiver main spring-loaded return-spring cap. The folding stock attaches to the pistol grip assembly (which can be seen detached below).

The proprietary rectangular trigger group housing brazed onto the tub receiver is unlike any other Sten and lacks a fire-selector.

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Left side of the Sten with its pistol grip and stock assembly detached (Matthew Moss)

The pistol grip itself is made from paxoline, a form of early resin plastic. The shape shape of the pistol grip does not resemble any production or prototype Sten grip. A simple hand-stop, made from a bent piece of sheet metal, has also been added in front of the weapon’s ejection port to prevent the user’s hand moving back and fingers being caught if gripped by the forend.

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Right side of the Sten with its stock unfolded (Matthew Moss)

While the origins of the hybrid Sten remain unclear I don’t believe it was an officially made prototype. While impressive it is relatively crudely assembled and does not match the Sten prototypes made by Enfield, such as the VI. Intriguingly, the magazine housing of the weapon has been stamped ‘PILOT’ below the usual ‘STEN MkIII’ stamp. I suspect that the weapon may have been put together by a unit armourer, perhaps authorised by a superior officer to suggest improvements or as an unofficial project gun.

Technical Specifications:

Length (with stock folded): approx. 40cm (30in)
Weight: approx. 3kg (7lb)
Barrel Length: 16cm (6.5in)
Action: Blowback
Calibre: 9x19mm
Feed: 32 round box magazine
Cyclic Rate: approx. 500 rpm


Bibliography:

The Sten Machine Carbine, P. Laidler (2000)

The Sten Gun, L. Thompson (2012)


Please do not reproduce photographs taken by Matthew Moss without permission or credit. ©The Armourer’s Bench 2018.

1958 ArmaLite AR-10 Promotional Film

In the first part of Vic’s special episode on the AR-10 we brought you a remastered version of the fascinating 1958 ArmaLite/Fairchild promotional sales film made for ArmaLite salesmen, like Sam Cummings and Jacques Michault, to show to prospective buyers of the new rifle. Back in the 1990s Vic was lucky enough to scan Michault’s copy the film and has recently remastered with better image quality.

Below you can find the video, time stamped to begin at the promotional film (although I highly recommend you watch the entire video for Vic’s introduction to the early history of the AR-10).

Lets break the video down, with the help of some screen captures. The film opens with a rifleman emerging from the sea, firing as he advances. The film then explains Fairchild’s background and beings to explain the features of the rifle.

Fairchild Armalite AR10 Promo (16).Movie_Snapshot
Arrows point out some of the AR-10s controls
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A close up of the rifle’s bolt and carrier
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A set of scales is used to demonstrate how the AR-10 (plus 50 rounds) is equal to an M1 Garand

The film then shows several shots of the rifle’s lower receiver being milled.

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The milling of the rifle’s aluminium-alloy forged receiver

None other than the rifle’s designer himself, Eugene Stoner, then takes an AR-10 from a wall display and proceeds to completely disassemble it.

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Stoner standing in front of a display board holding three AR-10 prototypes and AR-5s and an AR-7 survival rifle

Stoner completely strips the rifle, its muzzle device and its magazine before Charles Dorchester, ArmaLite’s production manager, demonstrating the rifle’s operation and subjects it to sub-zero temperatures and once again firing the rifle.

 

The film then shows the rifle being used in a variety of roles:

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AR-10 being fired with a scope mounted to the carrying handle
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The AR-10 being fired from a bi-pod in the light support role, feeding from 20-round magazines, the AR-10 LMG could easily be switched between magazine and belt feeding by removing the belt feed assembly
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An ENERGA rifle grenade being fired from the AR-10, the US Army had adopted the ENERGA as the M28 rifle grenade in 1950.

Stoner then covers the rifle with sand before running five magazines through the rifle in quick succession to demonstrate reliability:

 

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The rifle is then submerged in mud (with its dust cover closed) and demonstrated again.

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AR-10 covered in mud

The film then shows how simple field stripping and cleaning is before Stoner demonstrates the belt-fed variant of the rifle:

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A rifleman demonstrates the AR-10 in its belt-fed configuration, changing position several times before switching to feeding from magazines. Note also the ‘backpack’ belt box and controlled chute/feedway
Fairchild Armalite AR10 Promo (40).Movie_Snapshot
Stoner firing the belt-fed AR-10
Fairchild Armalite AR10 Promo (39).Movie_Snapshot
Stoner with a happy grin on his face before opening up with the AR-10,
Fairchild Armalite AR10 Promo (15).Movie_Snapshot
Note the bolt link port in the lower receiver

Don’t forget to check out the full episode and the accompanying blog here!

FAMAE PAF Submachine Gun

The 1960s and 70s saw Chile was racked by political turmoil with a military junta, led by General Augusto Pinochet, taking control in September 1973. Pinochet’s Junta took control of the country via a bloody coup, overthrowing President Salvador Allende, and as a result all export of small arms from Britain to Chile ceased. In the early 1970s, before the coup d’etat, The records of the Sterling Armaments Company show Chile purchased an example of the company’s Mk4 submachine guns and no less than 101 suppressed Mk5 Sterling-Patchetts.

With the import of small arms from the UK and other countries banned by an embargo Chile’s government were eager to increase their self-sufficiency.  As a result in the mid-1970s the state-owned firearms manufacturer Fábricas y Maestranzas del Ejército (FAMAE) experimented with copying the Sterling Mk4 in an effort to minimise development costs.

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Left-side view of the PAF with its stock extented (Matthew Moss)

The resulting 9x19mm submachine gun was dubbed the PAF or ‘Pistola Ametralladora FAMAE’. It took the basic Sterling design and simplified it. The PAF lacks the Mk4’s perforated barrel jacket and instead has an exposed barrel, tipped with a rudimentary spoon-shaped compensator. It also lacked the Sterling’s folding stock, instead it had a simple collapsing stock. As a result, the disassembly catch has been moved 90-degrees to the left side of the receiver.

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Right-side view of the PAF (Matthew Moss)

Like the original, the Chilean copy retained the dirt-clearing grooves cut into the weapon’s breech block. The PAF’s plastic charging handle and butt stock shape are reminiscent of the Heckler & Koch MP5 – although much cheaper feeling in quality. The profile of the PAF’s pistol grip is slightly different but the weapon still fed from standard 34-round Sterling magazines. Interestingly, unlike the Sterling’s screwed-in-place barrel, the PAF’s was held in place by a machined barrel nut – in terms of production this is a much simpler system, no doubt borrowed from the Uzi.

The Chilean copy weighs significantly less than the British original, 2.5kg (5.5 lbs) and reportedly has a much higher 800 rounds-per-minute rate of fire. In general the PAF looks much like Sterling’s own later Para Pistol model, the Mk7.

Some sources suggest that only a small number of toolroom prototypes were made, although the relatively high serial number, #00748, of the example we looked at may indicate a limited production run may have been produced. It is clear, however, that the PAF did not go into general production. Instead, FAMAE later focused on weapons derived from Swiss small arms including the SIG SG 510 and SIG SG 540, and the SAF submachine gun introduced in the 1990s.

Note: The PAF was the last weapon we filmed during this particular research trip and we did not have time to film or photograph the PAF’s internals (we filmed a lot of videos that day and were pressed for time). Rest assured if and when we get the opportunity we will update this article with photographs of the weapon disassembled!  

Technical Specifications:

Length (with stock collapsed): approximately 44cm (17in)
Weight (unloaded): 2.5kg (5.5lb)
Barrel Length: 17.5cm (6.9in)
Action: blowback, open bolt
Calibre: 9x19mm
Feed: 34-round box magazine
Cyclic Rate: suggested ~800 rpm


Bibliography:

The Guns of Dagenham, P. Laidler & D. Howroyd, (1995)

‘The PAF: Chile’s First Indigenous Submachine Gun’, TFB, R. Olive (source)


Please do not reproduce photographs taken by Matthew Moss without permission or credit. ©The Armourer’s Bench 2018.

Photos: Heckler & Koch G11 ACR

Here are a selection of external photographs showing the H&K G11 submitted to the US Army’s Advanced Combat Rifle trials in the mid-1980s. You can watch our introductory video featuring two G11s here.

Note: While this collection of images covers only the externals of the G11, rest assured that if and when we get the opportunity we will follow this up with hi-res photographs of the weapon disassembled!  

1
Right side view of the G11, note the muzzle plug inserted into the barrel (Matthew Moss)
2
Left side view of the G11, note the small window in the magazine showing the follower spring (Matthew Moss)
3
Close up of the right side of the G11’s fire selector (safe – semi – hyperburst – full auto), trigger and grip which enclosed a ‘control brush’ used to check the chamber was empty and in cleaning (Matthew Moss)
4
Left side close up of the G11’s selector, trigger and pistol grip – note also the rifle’s designation,  serial number, presumably manufacturing date and calibre moulded into the weapon’s casing (Matthew Moss)
5
A view of the G11 from above – note the alignment of the magazine and the lack of later additional channels for spare magazines seen in some G11K2s (Matthew Moss)
6
Close up of the G11’s foregrip and sling loop and an empty magazine loaded into the weapon  (Matthew Moss)
7
Close up of the weapon’s rotating ‘cocking handle’and pressure valve, note the white arrow indicating the direction to twist the handle to cock the weapon – the plastic folding handle on this example has sadly broken off, a common issue with G11s (Matthew Moss)
8
Close up of the left side of the G11’s ‘central part’, as HK described it, into which the barrel and breech assembly slide (Matthew Moss)

Many thanks to the collection, which wishes to remain anonymous, that holds this example of the G11 for the opportunity to examine, photograph and film it.


Please do not reproduce photographs taken by Matthew Moss without permission or credit. ©The Armourer’s Bench 2018.

Photographs: Durs Egg Breech-Loading Carbine

Matt was recently lucky enough to examine a 1785 Pattern Durs Egg Breech-loading cavalry carbine. Based upon Giuseppe Crespi’s breech-loading system, the Egg carbines were tested by British cavalry regiments in the late 1780s. You can check out our full-length article on the weapon here and our video here.

Below are a some photographs I took of the carbine showing some of the details of its design:

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A right-side view of the length of the carbine
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The carbine with its breech fully open from the right-hand, lock side
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Detail photo of the carbine’s lock and breech handle
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An overhead view of the Egg Carbine’s open breech showing the chamber into which powder and ball were placed
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A closer overhead view of the carbine’s breech
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A close up of the carbine’s spear point bayonet showing the extension of the brass trigger guard into which the bayonet point sits
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With the carbine’s breech partially open its possible to see the small touch hole into the breech block, just above the frizzen and pan, which allows the flash from the fan to ignite the powder charge
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The carbine and its bayonet

 

Our thanks to the collection that holds this example of the Durs Egg Carbine, whom wish to remain anonymous, which was kind enough to allow us access to their impressive array of small arms.


All photographs taken by Matthew Moss. Please do not reproduce these images without permission or credit. © The Armourer’s Bench 2018.

Photographs: BESAL

We were recently lucky enough to examine a 3rd Pattern BESAL light machine gun dating from c.1942.  You can check out our full-length article on the BESAL here and our video here.

Below are a some photographs I took of the BESAL showing some of the details of its design as well as its stamped and spot welded constriction:

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Left-side profile of the BESAL, note the shape of the butt is very similar to that of the earlier Lewis Gun
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BESAL with magazine removed, the weapon appears to use a standard MkII Bren non-adjustable bipod
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Like the Bren, the BESAL has a universal magazine adaptor to allow it to feed from both box and drum Bren magazines

Some close ups of the BESAL

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Top-down view of the BESAL note the offset sights
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Rivet reinforcement of the bolt’s locking recess in the top of the receiver
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Right side – The butt-retention pin can be seen just below the rear sight assembly, this pin is captive and once pulled allows the butt to come off, the bolt and pistol grip can then be removed from the weapon
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Close up of the BESAL’s barrel removal catch – rotate to the rear to remove the barrel
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BESAL’s spring-loaded magazine dust cover closed, note the magazine catch on the left
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A shot from behind the BESAL showing the rear sight and the enclosed front sight, both off set to the left

 

Our thanks to the collection that holds the BESAL, whom wish to remain anonymous, which was kind enough to allow us access to their impressive array of small arms.


All photographs taken by Matthew Moss. Please do not reproduce these images without permission or credit. © The Armourer’s Bench 2018.