ArmaLite AR10 Sudanese Bayonet

We’re proud to present our very first bayonet-centric episode. Vic takes a look at a bayonet for a Sudanese contract AR-10 as part of his ongoing Surplus Zone series. While a rather rare bayonet this example has some interesting features.

In 1958 the Sudanese Military contracted with Samuel Cummings company Interarmco, to supply 2,508 AR-10 Battle Rifles. 2,500 standard rifles and 8 adapted to mount optical sights as sniper rifles.

One of the requirements for the Sudanese rifles were that they were to be able to mount bayonets, something the AR-10 did not have a capability to do in its then current form. This inability to mount a bayonet was overcome by a rather simple and ingenious addition to the rifle. A cast and machined sleeve was fitted over the barrel between front sight base/gas block and the flash hider. This was pinned to the barrel just forward of the front sight base/gas block. It had machined into the underside of the bayonet adaptor a longitudinal rail to which the bayonet could be attached. This is the same interface as seen on WWII German issued Kar98K rifles, the significance of which will become clear!

It is uncertain why Interarmco chose the design of bayonet which they did. It would have been quite an expensive and complex one to manufacture but it is obvious that it is based upon the late WWII SG-42 bayonet come utility/fighting knife. The Sudanese contract AR-10 bayonet has a more symmetrical blade than that of the SG-42 and has no ‘blood groove’ (properly known as a fuller) which hints at the fact that it is seen more of a utility knife than as a ‘cut and thrust’ fighting knife/bayonet.

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Sudanese contract AR-10 bayonet

It has been established that the SG-42 was manufactured by Waffenfabrik Carl Eickhorn in Solingen, Germany (determined by its cof marking / WaA19 inspection code), whereas the toolkit was made by Robert Klaas of Solingen (inspection code: ltk). Inside the bayonet’s grip are a number of tools which detach from the grip and can be used for rifle maintenance. The tools also include a bottle opener and a corkscrew. Inside the toolkit stored in the bayonet’s grip are a number of tools which detach from the grip and can be used for rifle maintenance. The tools also include a bottle opener and a corkscrew.

In regard to the AR-10 Sudanese bayonet, the Eickhorn company does not deny being the manufacturer of the Sudanese contract bayonet, they simply cannot confirm that they were the maker, since all relevant factory records have been lost!

In the Dutch AR-10 archives, Interarmco (i.e. Samuel Cummings) does not disclose the name of the manufacturer, but refers only (in the pertinent correspondence with A.I.) to “the Solingen manufacturer” of this knife-bayonet for the Sudanese contract.

Check out Vic’s earlier Surplus Zone videos here and his special series on the AR-10 here.


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A Trio of Surplus AR-10 Rifles

In my travels across Europe in search of subjects for filming of our channel I have come across several ‘Surplus’ small arms dealers who have generously allowed me to film some of the interesting items and complete guns that are and will be subjects of some of my episodes in this ‘Surplus Zone’ series.

In this episode we examine ‘a Trio’ of AR10 rifles, unfortunately none of which are complete but they are all in exceptionally good condition.

It was explained to me that in or around 2001 Artillerie-Inrichtingen (AI), the company in the Netherlands that manufactured the AR10 rifle under licence from ArmaLite, were replaced by Eurometaal, then Rheinmetall. At this time a small cache of AR10 rifles, some complete and some incomplete, as well as a quantity of ‘new old stock’ parts were found and subsequently sold off.

These three incomplete AR10 rifles, which are the subject of this episode, appear to be built up from parts from this cache. They are not completely ‘correct’ to any known researched model but do follow the pattern of known examples. All three have been deactivated to the old German spec.

First, is a ‘Portuguese pattern’ rifle with a bipod is minus several parts (handguards, gas regulator, and bolt & bolt carrier) but is generally correct.

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Vic with the ‘Portuguese pattern’ rifle (Vic Tuff)

The second rifle is a ‘Sniper pattern’ rifle, which follows generally the design attributes of a Sudanese sniper rifle but does not have the rear sight graduations marked in Farsi. The butt stock does not have a brass marker disc and the barrel does not have the second pin cut that would retain the Sudanese bayonet mounting sleeve. It is also missing several parts (front sight block/gas regulator, gas tube, and bolt & bolt carrier).

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The receiver of the ‘Sudanese Sniper-pattern’ rifle (Vic Tuff)

The final rifle is quite a find, in that it is an undocumented pattern rifle. The lower receiver appears to have an in-factory modification, with the magazine well being cutaway/sculpted in the general pattern of the semiautomatic only ‘civilian’ prototypes or perhaps it is utilises a lower receiver that would have been modified to utilise a curved magazine… perhaps a 7.62x39mm Finnish prototype?

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Left-side view of the cutaway magazine rifle, with standard ‘waffle’ mag (Vic Tuff)
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Right-side view of the cutaway magazine rifle (Vic Tuff)

Enjoy the episode and if you have any thoughts or actual knowledge of the source of these rifles please share the information with us. Please also check out my earlier videos on the AR-10, here & here.

If you enjoyed the video and this article please consider supporting our work here. We have some great new perks available for Patreon Supporters.

TAB: Recommended Reading – The ArmaLite AR-10 by Joseph Putnam Evans

This is the first instalment of what will hopefully become a regular feature where we discuss some of the books we use when researching the guns we feature in our videos. We’ll give an overview of what the books cover, how they approach subjects and how good a resource they are.

With Vic’s recent special episode on the AR-10, I’ve been using Joseph Putnam Evans’ book ‘The ArmaLite AR-10: The World’s Best Battle Rifle‘ to help write the accompanying blog posts. While not without its flaws Evans’ book is without doubt the best published source on the AR-10 currently available.

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For many years the published material on the AR-10 was confined to both contemporary gun magazine articles on the ‘new’ rifle and a handful of retrospective articles published later. Very little was written about their surprisingly extensive combat use or even the nuances of the design changes. Even the Black Rifle books, also published by Collector Grade, lacked the context of where the AR-15 evolved from. ArmaLite AR-10 is well worth reading, and a great base for further research.

Special Episode: The ArmaLite AR-10 (Pt.2)

 

If you missed the first part of our special episode on the AR-10 you can find it here!

Vic brings us the second part of his special episode looking at the story of the AR-10, with a very unique run down of various variants of Eugene Stoner’s weapon. Vic runs us through every production model made by Artillerie Inrichtingen as well as several special prototypes and transitional models.

After a recap look at an example of a Hollywood-made rifle Vic shows us how the AR-10 worked using an instructional cutaway model. Throughout the video Vic examines all of the major production guns, beginning with an early A.I. production gun that incorporates the same ‘beer can’ muzzle device as the original American-made rifles. Vic then takes us through a series of rifles that represent the evolution of the design.

Photograph from the Bundeswehr rifle trials of a German soldier firing an AR-10B in 1957, the German’s classified the AR-10 as the G4 during the trials (source)

Beginning with the Cuban model, with its pencil profile barrel and top mounted gas tube. This model was also trailed by both the Dutch Army and the German Bundeswehr. Later in the video Vic gives us a quick look at the various German trials rifles the FAL (G1), the SIG 510-1 (G2), the H&K/CETME (G3) and the AR-10 (G4).

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Soldier firing an AR-10 during the Dutch Army trials (source)

Vic follows the Cuban model with a look at the Sudanese Model, with its bayonet lug sleeve, and the Guatemalan variant which swaps out the bayonet lug for rifle grenade launching capability. The Sudanese military ordered 2,508 rifles from A.I.

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Caçadores Paraquedista with an AR-10 (source)

In addition to these Vic also gives us a look at an extremely rare prototype carbine, a sporter model (the AR-102) and a prototype squad automatic weapon with a heavier profile barrel.  Vic then takes us through the features of the final A.I.-made variant, the Portuguese or NATO model. The rifle was officially adopted by the Portuguese army’s Caçadores Páraquedistas (paratroops) and saw action in Angola, Portuguese Guinea and Mozambique.

Vic then takes a look at a series of rare variants and one-offs, including a rifle with green furniture made for Prince Bernhard, the Royal consort to Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, and a heavy barrelled magazine-fed squad automatic rifle with a rubber butt-pad and additional folding carrying handle.

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‘Transitional’ model AR-10 (source)

To round out the story of Artillerie Inrichtingen’s involvement with the AR-10, Vic is lucky enough to take a close look at an M1 Garand adapted to feed from surplus AR-10 aluminium waffle magazines. This concept was developed to equip the NATRES, the Dutch Army Reserve, and was based somewhat on the Italian Beretta BM-59. Vic shows us both a very early prototype BM-59 and one of only two A.I. Garand adaptation prototypes.

In the next part of the series Vic will examine several examples of the belt-fed AR-10. If you missed the first part of the series, which featured the early history of the ArmaLite AR-10 and a very rare original promotional film featuring Eugene Stoner himself, you can find that here!

If you enjoyed the video and this article please consider supporting our work here.


Bibliography:

The Armalite AR-10: World’s Finest Battle Rifle, J. Putnam Evans (2016)

1958 ArmaLite AR-10 Promotional Film

In the first part of Vic’s special episode on the AR-10 we brought you a remastered version of the fascinating 1958 ArmaLite/Fairchild promotional sales film made for ArmaLite salesmen, like Sam Cummings and Jacques Michault, to show to prospective buyers of the new rifle. Back in the 1990s Vic was lucky enough to scan Michault’s copy the film and has recently remastered with better image quality.

Below you can find the video, time stamped to begin at the promotional film (although I highly recommend you watch the entire video for Vic’s introduction to the early history of the AR-10).

 

Lets break the video down, with the help of some screen captures. The film opens with a rifleman emerging from the sea, firing as he advances. The film then explains Fairchild’s background and beings to explain the features of the rifle.

Fairchild Armalite AR10 Promo (16).Movie_Snapshot
Arrows point out some of the AR-10s controls
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A close up of the rifle’s bolt and carrier
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A set of scales is used to demonstrate how the AR-10 (plus 50 rounds) is equal to an M1 Garand

The film then shows several shots of the rifle’s lower receiver being milled.

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The milling of the rifle’s aluminium-alloy forged receiver

None other than the rifle’s designer himself, Eugene Stoner, then takes an AR-10 from a wall display and proceeds to completely disassemble it.

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Stoner standing in front of a display board holding three AR-10 prototypes and AR-5s and an AR-7 survival rifle

Stoner completely strips the rifle, its muzzle device and its magazine before Charles Dorchester, ArmaLite’s production manager, demonstrating the rifle’s operation and subjects it to sub-zero temperatures and once again firing the rifle.

 

 

 

The film then shows the rifle being used in a variety of roles:

Fairchild Armalite AR10 Promo (26).Movie_Snapshot
AR-10 being fired with a scope mounted to the carrying handle
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The AR-10 being fired from a bi-pod in the light support role, feeding from 20-round magazines, the AR-10 LMG could easily be switched between magazine and belt feeding by removing the belt feed assembly
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An ENERGA rifle grenade being fired from the AR-10, the US Army had adopted the ENERGA as the M28 rifle grenade in 1950.

Stoner then covers the rifle with sand before running five magazines through the rifle in quick succession to demonstrate reliability:

 

 

 

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The rifle is then submerged in mud (with its dust cover closed) and demonstrated again.

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AR-10 covered in mud

The film then shows how simple field stripping and cleaning is before Stoner demonstrates the belt-fed variant of the rifle:

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A rifleman demonstrates the AR-10 in its belt-fed configuration, changing position several times before switching to feeding from magazines. Note also the ‘backpack’ belt box and controlled chute/feedway
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Stoner firing the belt-fed AR-10
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Stoner with a happy grin on his face before opening up with the AR-10,
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Note the bolt link port in the lower receiver

Don’t forget to check out the full episode and the accompanying blog here!

If you enjoyed the video and this article please consider supporting our work here.

Special Episode: The ArmaLite AR-10 (Pt.1)

 

In this first part of a TAB special episode examining the history of the ArmaLite AR-10 Vic discusses the early origins, history and development of the now legendary 7.62x51mm rifle. At the heart of this episode is a remastered version (certainly the best currently available online) of the c.1958 ArmaLite/Fairchild promotional film that features Eugene Stoner and shows many of the early ‘Hollywood’ Armalites in action! The first part of this special documentary concludes with Vic examining a Hollywood-made AR-10B (the last iteration of the US-made AR-10s).

Part two of the episode can be found here and includes an overview of almost every Artillerie Inrichtingen (A.I.)-made model of AR-10, including the Cuban, Sudanese and Portuguese variants. 


Armalite & the AR-10’s Early History

Much has been written about the AR-10, Eugene Stoner and the genesis of the AR-15’s parent rifle. It’s a design which owes much to many: Stoner, George Sullivan, Melvin Johnson and later the engineers at Artillerie Inrichtingen.

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Photographs taken during Springfield Armory’s evaluation of the AR-10B (source)

ArmaLite, formed by George Sullivan with the help of Richard Boutelle, President of the Fairchild Engine and Aircraft Corporation, began work on the first AR-10 prototypes in 1955. Designed by Eugene Stoner, using his patented direct gas impingement system. Stoner patented this system in 1956, with the patent being granted in September 1960 (US #2,951,424).

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Stoner pictured with some of the Hollywood AR-10 prototypes for a 1958 article in Guns magazine (source)

The AR-10 had an aluminium-alloy forged receiver, an in-line stock, polymer furniture and chrome-lined steel parts. While conventional steel barrels were the norm an ill-fated attempt to use an aluminium/steel composite barrel during US Army evaluations proved disastrous when the steel inner parted from the aluminium outer and caused the barrel to burst. As a result of these weight saving efforts the rifle weighed just ~3.4kgs/7.5lbs unloaded. The Armalite AR-10 had a side mounted gas tube, a top mounted charging handle and fed from 20-round box magazines. One of the most interesting features was the large aluminium muzzle device, fitted to some ArmaLite-made Rifles, which reduced sound and flash.

In 1957, ArmaLite sold the AR-10 manufacturing rights to the Dutch small arms manufacturer Artillerie Inrichtingen, while US manufacture was licensed by Colt in February 1959. With minimal financial returns Fairchild sold their interests in ArmaLite in 1962.

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A Springfield Armory file photograph of the AR-10B disassembled, taken during evaluations in 1956 (source)

Featured in the first part of Vic’s special episode on the AR-10 is an original Armalite/Fairchild promotional film, originally filmed in 16mm, that dates from around 1958. While a version of this film has been shared online for a number of years it is grainy, washed out and of relatively low audio quality. Vic reproduced the very rare promotional sales film in the 1990s onto VHS (a process he explains in the video). He has managed to take an original VHS copy and digitally remaster it to regain some of the original’s clarity and detail.

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A still from Vic’s remastered 1958 promo film showing Stoner firing the belt-fed variant of the AR-10 (source)

The promotional film was originally used by salesmen to showcase the AR-10 to potential clients and features Hollywood-produced guns. Both Stoner and Charles Dorchester (ArmaLite’s production manager) are seen in the film demonstrating the AR-10. The rifle’s action, function and controls are explained and various variants, including rifle and light machine gun, are demonstrated. The demonstration segment included a sub-zero test, covering in sand and much and Stoner himself dumping 5 magazine’s through the rifle in quick succession. The promotional film concluded with demonstrations of firing rifle grenades and a belt-fed AR-10.

Vic concludes the first part of the AR-10 overview episode with an examination of an AR-10B rifle held by the Netherlands’ Nationaal Militair Museum. In the second part of the episode Vic will look at nearly a dozen AR-10 variants made by Artillerie Inrichtingen (A.I.) between 1957 and 1961.

Part 2 of the AR-10 special can be found here!

If you enjoyed the video and this article please consider supporting our work here.


Bibliography:

The Armalite AR-10: World’s Finest Battle Rifle, J. Putnam Evans (2016)

ArmaLite AR-10 Promotional Video (courtesy of Vic Tuff)