M16A4s in Ukraine

On 12 January, a unit of the Ukrainian Army’s 47th Separate Mechanised Brigade (47 OMBr) was seen equipped with US M16A4s for the first time. The rifles were seen equipped with Trijicon ACOG optics and some, a considerable percentage, were seen with M203 40mm under-barrel grenade launchers, and of course rail covers.

Photo released by 47 OMBr in early January showing M16A4s in Ukraine for the first time (47 OMBr)

Previously, we have seen a considerable number of M4A1 carbines, some equipped with M320 40mm grenade launchers. This, however, is the first time we’ve seen the M16A4. Other elements of the 47 OMBr have been seen equipped with FN FNCs in 5.56x45mm. The 47 OMBr appears to be a unit which has largely been allotted western small arms and equipment. The brigade was formed in November 2022 and, as with a number of other new Ukrainian brigades, has been built up from a battalion (which was raised in August 2022) to a regiment to a brigade level formation.

A close up of an M16A4 with an ACOG and M203 UBGL and rail covers in Ukrainian service (47 OMBr)

The M16A4 is a 5.56x45mm, select-fire rifle which uses a direct impingement gas system and a rotating bolt locking mechanism. The M16A4 was developed in the late 1990s and entered service in January 1999. It and has seen service with the US Army, USMC and US Navy. The US Army began to move away from the M16A4 in favour of the M4A1 in 2011 while the USMC favoured the rifle’s 20 inch (50.8cm) barrel length and began replacing its M16A2 with A4s in 2002, only in October 2015 did they begin to transition to the M4A1 Carbine and latterly the M27 for infantry Marines. Despite this the M16A4, however, remains in widespread service use.

The photographs and short video where the rifles were seen for the first time were posted to commemorate a visit from members of Plast, Ukraine’s scouts organisation, who brought a lamp of the Fire of Peace to be lit with members of the brigade.

Another photograph was shared on the brigade’s social media on 22 January, showing a close up of an M203-equipped M16A4, which was also mounted with an ACOG. How many of these rifles have been transferred is unknown, the most recent US Department of Defense fact sheet on aid to Ukraine, published on 25 January, lists 13,000 assorted small arms.

An as-issued M16A4 service rifle with quad rail forend, railed receiver, ACOG and grip pod (US Army)

The rifles appear to be straight from US Army or USMC inventory and look to be in good shape. The rifles have been predominantly made by Colt and FN. None of the imagery has been close enough yet to see which manufacturer the now-Ukrainian rifles were made by.

I expect we will be seeing a proliferation of the M16A4 rifles just as we have the M4A1 carbines since the early summer of 2022. The 47 OMBr probably won’t be the only unit to field them and we’ll probably be seeing many more of these in the future as the US military has considerable stocks of the rifles and production lines are still active. If and when we do, I’ll follow up with further videos/articles.


Support Us: If you enjoyed this video and article please consider supporting our work here. We have some great perks available for Patreon Supporters – including early access to custom stickers and early access to videos! Thank you for your support!


Bibliography:

Marine’s Switch from the M16 to the M4, Marine Corps Times, (source)

Weapon Systems 2011, US Army, (source)

5.56 Chronology, D. Watters/LooseRounds, (source)

FN & Colt Will Compete for M16A4 Foreign Military Sales Contracts Worth $380 Million, TFB, (source)

Aid to Ukraine Factsheet, 25 Jan., US Department of Defense, (source)

47 Brigade, Markus Foundation, (source)

Ukrainian Troops Train with G36s

We’ve previously looked at Ukrainian troops training with the British L85A2 and Chinese Type 56s AK-pattern rifles. In June, the first images of Ukrainian troops training with G36s emerged, shared by the Lithuanian Ministry of Defence. 

The baltic nations of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have been staunch supporters of Ukraine’s and Lithuania’s military has been providing training of various sorts since 2015. Back in April, Lithuania’s Chief of Defence Lieutenant General Valdemaras Rupšys announced that Lithuania would train an undisclosed number of Ukrainian troops on how to use various anti-tank weapons at locations within Lithuania. There has so far been no imagery released of this training.

Lithuania’s Military Academy has also provided a distance learning course online for junior leaders and at the end of October it was announced that 120 junior officers had received training across 4 two-day courses.

In the summer an in-person course that has seen Ukrainian personnel travel to Lithuania for training was established. A course at the Division General Stasys Raštikis Lithuanian Armed Forces School ended in early June. The four week course included weapons handling and marksmanship, map training, fieldcraft and tactics. Organised as part of the NATO Defence Education Enhancement Program (DEEP) it was during these courses Ukrainian personnel have been seen training with Lithuanian G36s.

Ukrainian troops training in Lithuania (Lithuanian MoD)

Additionally, Lithuanian instructors have also been training Ukrainian personnel in other countries including the UK. It was announced on 19 October, that a team of military instructors formed from members of the Lithuanian Armed Forces Great Hetman Jonušas Radvila Training Regiment, Division General Stasys Raštikis Lithuanian Armed Forces School, General Adolfas Ramanauskas Warfare Training Centre and the Military Medical Service had joined a multi-national training effort providing basic military training for Ukrainian troops at bases in  the UK.

In mid November it was announced that instructors from Ukraine had also taken part in an international instructor course. The course reportedly covered training techniques, weapons training, instruction organisation. The Lithuanian Ministry of Defence also noted that throughout December, there had been more specific courses for Ukrainian personnel on CBRN-contaminated operational environments, courses on UAVs and on intelligence collection from open sources.  

Summarising the training provided the Lithuanian Ministry of Defence said 18 different courses had been delivered including: basic individual skills, junior officer command, instructor, special forces, demolition and demining courses.  Operators and maintenance for different types of military equipment were also trained.

Ukrainian troops training in Lithuania (Lithuanian MoD)

Lithuania adopted the HK G36 in 2007 and has used several variants including the G36KV1 and the G36KA4M1. None of the photographs show the rifles mounted with optics and in three of the photographs the rifles can be seen fitted with Heckler & Koch’s adjustable blank firing attachment for the G36. 

In early December Lithuania announced that in 2023 training of Ukrainian troops would be stepped up with 1,100 personnel to be trained in Lithuania. Part of the courses scheduled in 2023 will be a part of the new European Union’s Military Assistance Mission Ukraine (EUMAM Ukraine).


Support Us: If you enjoyed this video and article please consider supporting our work here. We have some great perks available for Patreon Supporters – including early access to custom stickers and early access to videos! Thank you for your support!

PK-14 Directional Mines In Ukraine

Recently another interesting anti-tank mine was spotted in use in Ukraine. The Estonian PK-14 or M14 directional mine appeared in photographs which were shared online around 9 September. The PK-14 is a directional mine capable of penetrating about 50mm of armour at a distance of 50 meters.

Photos of the PK-14 in the field were shared for the first time on 9 September (via Social Media)

Unlike the German DM22, which is also in service with Ukrainian forces, the PK-14 utilises the Misznay–Schardin effect with 1.5kg charge of PBX used to create an explosively formed penetrator. The PK-14 is capable of damaging most light IFVs and AFVs. It can be set up on a small tripod or even mounted to a tree, telephone poll or post – useful for attacking targets from above.   

The Estonian defence company who manufactures the mine list it as both the PK-14 and M14.  The mine is produced by Terramil under license from another Estonian defence company, Eesti Arsenal, who also offer several training systems.

The PK-14 assembled (nucking_futs_yuri)
The PK-14 assembled, tripod in the tall configuration (nucking_futs_yuri)
The PK-14 assembled, tripod in the low configuration (nucking_futs_yuri)

The PK-14 has a diopter sight which attaches to the top of the mine and allows it to be laid across the expected path of a target. The sight itself is a inexpensive moulded plastic tube with a narrow aperture which was described to us by an American serving with the Ukrainian armed forces as looking “like a scope you would find on a cheap toy gun at the corner store”. The mine’s casing is cleverly designed with a series of grooves that allow the sight to be slid into place and for the mine itself to be mounted on its tripod.

The PK-14’s sight tube (nucking_futs_yuri)

This instructional video from the manufacturers shows how the mine can be set up. The mine is command-initiated using a shock tube integrated system (STIS). This means that the mine isn’t tripped by a wire like the German DM-22 or by movement as in the Russian PTKM-1R, but in person by an operator. In practice the operator would set up the mine at a location the enemy is expected to pass, unspool the shock cord back to a concealed position and wait for the enemy vehicle to move within range of the mine.

In theory it is possible to rig the mines up with a makeshift pressure plate detonation system you could take the pressure plate from a conventional anti-tank mine like a TM-46 or TM-57 and wrap some detcord with a blasting cap at the end around it so when a vehicle rolls over it detonates the mine. The mine can be set up to strike from above so it hits the tank’s weak top armour or buried in the middle of the road so it can strike up through the vehicle’s belly armour.

The PK-14’s basic components (nucking_futs_yuri)

Special thanks to nucking_futs_yuri, who is best known as the turret gunner who ran an M2 Browning and was handed some AT4s by his vehicle crew when he called for more ammunition in a recent viral video. Yuri has provided photos and video of a PK-14 in his units inventory. Check out his video showing the components of the mine here.

It’s a small, affordable mine but it is currently unknown how many PK-14 mines have been sent to Ukraine but Estonia, along with the other Baltic states, has been a significant supporter of Ukraine since before Russia’s invasion in February. Estonia began procuring the mines for the Estonian Defence Force in 2015.

nucking_futs_yuri’s video showing the components and set up of the PK-14

In terms of how they may be deployed in Ukraine, the small size and light weight of the PK-14 may be useful for small Ukrainian reconnaissance and special forces teams operating behind Russian lines. Yuri explained that they’re preferred over convention Soviet TM mines as they’re lighter, he stated that:

“normally we each take 2 or more with us, set up our ambush and wait. We could mount them high if need be and get the top of the turret or even bury them in the middle of the road… so it explodes under the center of the tank.”

Check out Yuri’s YouTube channel and Instagram page.


If you enjoyed this video and article please consider supporting our work here. We have some great perks available for Patreon Supporters – including custom stickers and early access to videos! Thank you for your support!


Bibliography:

PK-14 Landmine, CAT-UXO, (source)

‘The “smart” mines produced by an Estonian company will receive their first combat missions in Ukraine’, Forte, (source)

Anti-armor mine PK-14, Terramil, (source)

PK-14 Side Mines, Eesti Arsenal, (source)

Swedish PV-1110 Recoilless Guns In Ukraine

On 18 August Russian Telegram channels began sharing photographs of weapons claimed to be captured from Ukrainian forces, near Sloviansk, including a DShK, a damaged MG-42/59 and most interestingly a Swedish PV-1110.

The Pansarvärnspjäs 1110 or PV-1110 is a recoilless gun developed by Bofors which saw service with the Swedish military between 1959 and the late 1990s/early 2000s. While not the only recoilless rifle/gun in use in Ukraine, others include the Carl Gustav and SPG-9, the 90mm smoothbore PV-1110 is perhaps the rarest. With sources suggesting that fewer than 2,000 PV-1110s were manufactured this would make the PV-1110 one of the rarest anti-tank weapons in use in Ukraine.

A Swedish PV-1110 claimed to be captured from Ukrainian forces (via Russian telegram channels)

Developed in the early 1950s it was adopted by Sweden in 1959, the PV-1110 could be mounted on vehicles but also on a wheeled carriage with the barrel suspended from an ingenious ball joint mount. In the photographs of the captured example, showing its serial number #5936, we can see this two-wheeled carriage for the weapon. 

The ball joint was intended to compensate for firing from an uneven position. The PV-1110 weighs in at around 260kg (just over 570lbs) and has an optical sight on the left side of the barrel as well as a spotting rifle, based on the Ag m/42 chambered in 7.62x51mm, mounted on top. The PV-1110 has an effective range of up to 1,000m but engagement of moving targets is limited to around 700m according to the Lithuanian Army. With a good crew it is capable of firing up to 6 rounds per minute. The older m/62 HEAT round could penetrate up to 380mm of rolled homogeneous armour (RHA), the m/77 can penetrate up to 500mm and the m/84, the most modern and capable round can penetrate up to 800mm of armour. It’s unknown what ammunition has been provided for the guns.

A Swedish PV-1110 claimed to be captured from Ukrainian forces (via Russian telegram channels)

While it could be suggested that recoilless guns and rifles like the PV-1110 are obsolescent the continued use of the SPG-9 shows they still have their uses. The PV-1110’s low-profile combined with its still quite effective penetration means its still a viable weapon against most armoured vehicles its likely to encounter.

Following on from the first sighting in Ukraine on 22nd August footage of a PV-1110 firing from a defensive position surfaced and we can see the gun on its very recognisable mount.

Still from video of the PV-1110 in Ukraine, c.22 August 2022

But how did Ukrainian forces come by their PV-1110? There were likely transferred from one of the Baltic nations which have supplied Ukraine with considerable military assistance. Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia all received a number of PV-1110s from Sweden when they were retired from service. It is unclear how many weapons each of the three countries originally received.

Troops of the Lithuanian National Defense Volunteer Force training with the PV-1110 c.2014 (Lithuanian Army) 

The Estonian Defence League reportedly had over 100 in inventory as of 2018 while the Latvian National Guard have a similar number. Lithuania’s Army and National Defense Volunteer Force have previously been seen to be equipped with the PV-1110 in recent years but they have reportedly since been placed in wartime reserve storage. No country has publicly confirmed the transfer of the PV-1110s, so with the Baltic nations slowly removing the guns from service it’s likely that the PV-1110s either came from the remaining guns held by the Swedish Army or from the stores of Lithuania, Latvia or Estonia. Regardless of their origin they represent one of the rarest recoilless guns in service in Ukraine.

Update 18/10/22:

Some recent footage of the PV-1110 in use in Ukraine. It is unclear where or when this footage was filmed but it surfaced on social media around 15 October. I suspect it was filmed during training rather than when in action. Regardless, it represents one of the few pieces of footage we have of the Swedish recoilless guns in action in Ukraine.

Update 25/01/23:

The recently raised 47th Separate Assault Brigade have shared several photographs of a PV-1110 on their social media pages, between 10 and 15 January. The photographs were likely taken during training. The first is a point-of-view shot down the weapon’s barrel while the second is a side profile shot – both taken during firing.

Bibliography:

Pansarvärnspjäs 1110 Avvecklad, Soldf.com (source

Prieštankinis beatošliaužis pabūklas PV1110, Lithuanian Army, (source)

Lithuania Volunteers Train with PV-1110, Lithuanian Army, (source)

90mm Recoilless Rifle promotional video, Bofors, (source)


If you enjoyed this video and article please consider supporting our work here. We have some great perks available for Patreon Supporters – including custom stickers and early access to videos! Thank you for your support!